Q.1 Answer all the questions.
(I) What is Learning? List the elements of learning process.
Ans. Learning can be defined as a change in behaviour as a result of experience. This can be physical and overt, or it may involve complex intellectual or attitudinal changes which affect behaviour in more subtle ways.
The elements of learning process are as follows:-
(II) What do you understand by dynamic characteristics of motivation?
Ans. Characteristics of motivation are: –
- Motivation is a psychological Concept: -Motivation should come from inside each individual.
- The whole Individual is motivated, not part of Him: – A person’s basic needs determine to a great extent what he will try to do at any given time.
- Motivation is an unending Process: – It is an unending process so the process of motivation is also unending to induce the person to satisfy is innumerable wants.
- Frustration of Basic Needs Makes a Man Sick: -If anybody fails in trying to mt a need which the feels is essential for him, he becomes to some extent mentally ill.
- Goals are Motivators:-Goals and motives are inseparable. Man works to achieve the goals.
- The self-concept as a Unifyings Force: – Unifying force means the drive to actual his image of himself.
(III) What is relationship marketing?
Ans. Relationship marketing is a strategy designed to foster customer loyalty, interaction and long-term engagement. This customer relationship management (CRM) strategy focuses more on long-term customer retention than acquiring large numbers of new and potentially single-transaction customers.
Relationship marketing is designed to develop strong connections with customers by providing them with information directly suited to their needs and interests and by promoting open communication. This approach often results in increased word-of-mouth activity, repeat business and a willingness on the customer’s part to provide information to the organization.
(IV) List the factors responsible for perceptual distortion.
Ans. Factors responsible for perceptual distortion are: –
(V) List the stages of consumer buying decision process.
Ans. Here are the six stages of the consumer buying decision process:
- Problem Recognition (awareness of need)
3. Evaluation of Alternatives
4. Purchase Decision
6. Post-Purchase Evaluation
Note: Answer any two questions. Each question carries 5 marks (Word limits 500)
Q2. Discuss Howard Sheth Model of buying behaviour.
Ans. The Howard Sheth model, serves as an integrating framework for a very sophisticated comprehensive theory of consumer behavior. It should be noted that the authors actually use the term buyer in their model to refer to industrial purchases as well as ultimate consumers. Thus, it can be seen that their interest was to develop a unified theory useful for understanding a great variety of behaviours.
The model attempts to depict rational brand choice behavior by buyers under conditions of incomplete information and limited abilities. It distinguishes three levels of decision making:
1) Extensive problem solving – early stages of decision making in which the buyer has little information about brands and has not yet developed, well defined and structured criteria by which to choose among products (choice criteria).
2) Limited problem solving – in this more advanced stage choice criteria are well defined but the buyer is still undecided about which set of brands will best serve him. Thus, the consumer still experiences uncertainty about which brand is best.
3) Routinized responses behavior – buyers have well defined choice criteria and also have strong predispositions towards the brand. Little confusion exists in the consumer’s mind and he is ready to purchase a particular brand with little evaluation of alternatives,
The model borrows from learning concepts to explain brand choice behavior over time as learning takes place and the buyer moves from exclusive to routinized problem solving behavior. Four major components are involved: –
- Input variables: – Input variables are depicted in the left portion of the model as stimuli in the environment. Significance stimuli are actual elements of brands that the buyer confronts while symbolic form, such as in advertisements. Social stimuli are generated by the social environment including family and groups.
- Output variables: – The five output variables in the right hand portion of the model are buyers’ observable responses to stimulus inputs. They are arranged in order from attention to actual purchase and are defined as follows:
- Attention – the magnitude of the buyer’s information intake.
- Comprehension – the buyer’s store of information about a brand.
- Attitude – the buyer’s evaluation of a particular brand’s potential to satisfy his of her motives.
- Intention – the buyers forecast of which brand he or she will buy.
- Purchase behaviour – the actual purchase act, which reflects the buyer’s predisposition to buy as modified by any inhibitors
- Hypothetical constructs: – A number of intervening variables are proposed, represented by hypothetical constructs in the large rectangular, central black box shown. They are categorized into two major groups: (1) perceptual constructs dealing with information processing and (2) learning constructs dealing with the buyer’s formation of concepts
- Exogenous Variables: – The model also includes some exogenous variables which are not defined but are taken as constant. These influence all or some of the constructs explained above and through them, the output. Some exogenous variables are importance of the purchase, time at the disposal of the buyer, personality traits, financial status etc.